Homer and His Guide

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William-Adolphe Bouguereau (French, 1825–1905)
Homer and His Guide, 1874
Oil on canvas
82 1/4 x 56 1/4 in. (208.92 x 142.88 cm) framed: 99 1/2 × 73 3/4 × 5 1/2 in. (252.73 × 187.33 × 13.97 cm)
Layton Art Collection Inc., Gift of Frederick Layton L1888.5
Photo credit: Larry Sanders
Not Currently on View

Carrying on the Neoclassical tradition of David and Ingres, William-Adolphe Bouguereau dominated French academic painting of the late 19th century. Before becoming identified with beautifully crafted, albeit sentimental, images of women and children, Bouguereau concentrated on elevated religious and mythological subjects that historically were the acme of pictorial subject matter. André Chenier’s poem describing shepherds offering their service after hearing the blind Greek poet Homer praying for a guide furnished Bouguereau with a special theme for this painting. The 18th-century French poet Chenier found his inspiration in ancient classical models, as did the Neoclassical painters. Thus by giving visual expression to Chenier’s poem, Bouguereau also subtly managed to demonstrate his ideological support of academic painting.

Publication History
Sawinski, Catherine. MAM Behind-the-Scenes: Where Did They Go?. Milwaukee Art Museum: Under the Wings, February 7, 2017. https://blog.mam.org/2017/02/07/14138/.

Norman, Larry F., and Leonard, Anne. Classicisms. Univ of Chicago David & Alfred, 2017, fig.44, color illus.

Sawinski, Catherine. Mr. Layton's Gallery--The Salon-Style Hang. Milwaukee Art Museum: Under the Wings, April 12, 2013. http://blog.mam.org/2013/04/12/mr-laytons-gallery-the-salon-style-hang/.

Eastberg, John C. and Eric Vogel. Layton’s Legacy: A Historic American Art Collection 1888–2013. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Layton Art Collection, Inc., 2013, pp. 98–103, color pl. 4, p. 99, color illus. p. 83, color detail pp. 100–01, 102, and 103, photo of installation pp. 119, 125, 150, 155, 379, and 389.

Bartoli, Damien and Frederick Ross. William Bouguereau: Catalogue Raisonné of his Painted Work. New York: New York Antique Collectors' Club and Woodridge, New Jersey: Art Renewal Center, 2010, p. 155–56, cat 1874/05, color illus. p. 155.

Cole, Thomas B. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 303, no. 9, p. 817, illus. cover.

Peck, James F. In the Studios of Paris: William Bouguereau and his American Students. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Philbrook Museum of Art and New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2006, pl. 24, color pl. 6.

Andera, Margaret, Nonie Gadsden, Britt Salvesen, and Laurie Winters. Collection Guide: Milwaukee Art Museum. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Milwaukee Art Museum, 2004, pp. 20, 68, cat. 24, color illus. p. 20.

Milwaukee Art Museum. Building a Masterpiece: Milwaukee Art Museum. New York: Hudson Hill Press, 2001, p. 88, color illus.

Wissman, Fronia E. Bouguereau. San Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks, 1996. color illus. pl. 52.

Takahashi, Akiya, and Ruth Berson. Paris en 1874: L’annee de L’impressionisme. Tokyo, Japan: Le Yomiuri Shimbun, 1994, cat. 52, color illus. p. 124.

Mainardi, Patriacia. The End of the Salon, Art and the State in the Early Third Republic. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 52, pl. 9.

De Fernandez-Gimenez, Elizabeth Ourusoff. Cornerstones of the Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin Academy Review Magazine 36, no. 4 (September 1990): illus. p. 12.

Milwaukee Art Museum. 1888: Frederick Layton and His World. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Milwaukee Art Museum, 1988, pp. 98–99, cat. 31, color illus. p. 99.

Naglin, Nancy. On Exhibit: Founder's Choice. Americana 16, no. 1 (March/April 1988): p. 18.

Lewis, Arnold et al. The Opulent Interiors of the Gilden Age: All 203 Photographs from Artistic Houses. New York: Dover, 1987, p. 38, painting seen in home of Cornelia M. Stewart in fig. 8.

Goldstein, Rosalie, ed. Guide to the Permanent Collection. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Milwaukee Art Museum, 1986, p. 84, color illus. p. 84.

D'Argencourt, Louise and Mark Steven Walker. William Bouguereau, 1825–1905. Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1984, p. 192–93, cat. 62, b/w illus. p. 192.

Isaacson, Robert. William-Adolphe Bouguereau. New York: New York Cultural Center, 1974, cat. 10, illus.

Milwaukee Art Center. Mirrors of the 19th Century Taste: Academic Painting. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Milwaukee Art Center, 1974, cat. 12.

Milwaukee Journal, Editorial Page, October 9, 1960, illus.

Vachon, Maurice. W. Bouguereau. Paris: A Lahure, 1900, p. 151.

American Art Association. Catalogue of the A.T. Stewart Collection of Paintings, Sculptures, and Other Objects of Art to the Sold by Auction. New York: American Art Association, 1887, no. 73.

Vendryes, C. & L. Baschet, ed. Catalog illustre des oeuvres de W. Bouguereau. Paris, 1885, pp. 49–50, illlus.

Strahan, Edward. The Art Treasures of America, Being the Choicest Works of Art in Public and Private Collections of North America. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Barrie, 1879 and 1980, p. 44, illus. p. 44.

The Layton Art Gallery. Catalogue of the Layton Art Gallery. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Layton Art Gallery, 1921, p. 20, illus. no. 13.

The Opening of the Layton Art Gallery. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Cramer, Aikens and Cramer, Printers, 1888, pp. 29, 31, 51.

Mr. Layton's Gift. The Milwaukee Sentinel, April 6, 1888.

American Art Association. Catalogue of the A.T. Stewart Collection of Paintings, Sculptures, and Other Objects of Art to the Sold by Auction. New York: American Art Association, 1887, no. 73. Accessed April 20, 2017. https://hdl.handle.net/2027/wu.89056268147.

Strahan, Edward, ed. The Art Treasures of America: Being the Choicest Works of Art in the Public and Private Collections of North America. Philadelphia: Gebbie & Barrie, 1880, p. 44, b/w drawing p. 44. http://archive.org/details/arttreasuresofam01stra.

Strahan, Edward. The Chefs-d’Oeuvres d’Art of the International Exhibition. 1878, p. 28.

Goupil Book 7, Stock No. 8813, Page 124, Row 4, PI Record No. G-1197, Getty Provenance Research website. Acessed April 24, 2017. http://rosettaapp.getty.edu:1801/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=FL1675581. (title as Homère & son guide)
Exhibition History
Classicisims, Smart Museum of Art, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, February 16 - June 11, 2017.

1874: The Year of Impressionism, The National Museum of Western Art, The Yomiuri Shimbun, Tokyo, Japan, September 20–November 27, 1994.

1888: Frederick Layton and His World, Milwaukee Art Museum, April 8–August 28, 1988.

William Bouguereau, 1825-1905, Musee du Petit-Palais, February 9–May 6, 1984; The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, June 22–September 23, 1984; The Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, October 27, 1984–January 13, 1985.

William-Adolphe Bouguereau, New York Cultural Center, December 13, 1974–February 2, 1975.

Mirrors of 19th Century Taste: Academic Painting, Milwaukee Art Center, July 14–August 25, 1974.

Paris Salon, 1874.

This information is subject to change as the result of ongoing research.